Grundämne i stål (Elements in Steel)

I järn och stål andvänds och förekommer bland bland andra följande grundämne:

Sammanställt av metallurg Stefan Norrman

Fe - järn

Iron is the base metal in steel, combining with other alloying elements to form all steel types. It is relatively soft and weak in its pure form.

C - kol

Carbon is a nonmetallic element, forms a number of organic and inorganic compounds and can be found in coal, petroleum and limestone. It is the principle strengthening element in carbon steels and low-alloy steels. Atomic number 6, atomic weight 12.01115.

P - fosfor

Phosphorus is a poisonous, nonmetallic element that helps protect metal surfaces from corrosion. Atomic number 15, atomic weight 30.9738.

S - svavel

Sulfur is a nonmetallic element found mainly in volcanic and sedimentary deposits. Sulfur, in the form of iron sulfide, can cause steel to be too porous and prone to cracking. Atomic number 16, atomic weight 32.064.

N - kväve

Nitrogen is added to stainless steel to improve the austenitic stability with increased yield strength.

Cr - krom

Chromium (Cr): Chromium, a metallic element, is found in the earth's crust. It is used in the production of stainless steel to make the steel resistant to oxidation and corrosion. Atomic number 24, atomic weight 51.996.

Ni - nickel

Nickel (Ni): Nickel is a hard, metallic element that found in igneous rocks. Without nickel, stainless steel would be less resistant to heat and corrosion. Atomic number 28, atomic weight 58.71.

Mo - molybden

Molybdenum is added to nickel chrome alloy steels to improve strength and hardness and also in chromium nickel austenitic steels it improves corrosion resistance. Molybdenum is used in some high speed steel grades.

Va - vanadin

Vanadium helps improve fatigue stress and wear resistance when used with other alloying elements.

Ti - titan

Titanium is commonly added to steel for carbide stabilization, combining with carbon to form titanium carbides.

Cu - koppar

Copper can be present in stainless steels for precipitation hardening properties. Used in “weathering” steels.

Al - aluminium

Aluminium is added to steel as a deoxidizer. Added to control grain size aluminium can control austenite grain growth in reheated steels.

B - bor

Boron is an alloying element added to steel to aid heat treatment through enhancement hardenability. Sometimes added to austenitic stainless steel grades to improve its high temperature strength.

Mn - mangan

Manganese is a brittle, metallic element that exists in the ore of pyrolusite. When making steel, it reacts with sulfur and helps to increase the metal's resistance to heat. Atomic number 25, atomic weight 54.9380.

Co - kobolt

Cobalt (Co)Cobalt can be used up to 10% content in some high speed steels. It becomes radioactive when exposed to nuclear radiation therefore for radioactive applications it must not be present in steel.

W - volfram

Tungsten is a major element in high speed and some tool steels. In the heat treated condition it retains hardness at elevated temperatures and is particularly useful for cutting tools.

Nb - bly

Niobium stabilises carbon in the same way as titanium and strengthens steels for high temperature service.

Pb - bly

Lead is added to improve machineability.

Se - selen

Selenium is added to steel to improve machineability.

Ta - Tantalum

Tantalum is a refractory metal which is highly corrosion resistant. It is part of the refractory metals group, which are widely used as minor components in alloys and precipitation hardening stainless steels.

Si - silikon

Silicon is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust and can be found in rocks, sand and clay. It acts as a deoxidizer in steel production. Atomic number 14, atomic weight 28.086.

Zr - Zirconium